All posts by Daniel J. Heisey

Aldo Leopold and Mark Trail

In one of his finer novels, Sackett (1961), Louis L’Amour has the narrator, William Tell Sackett, observe, “A mountain man tries to live with the country instead of against it.”  The context was Sackett having seen a grizzly bear “scooping honey out of a hollow tree.”  Sackett, Tell to family and friends, saw no threat from the bear and so moved on.  “That bear was minding his business,” Sackett explains, “so I minded mine.”

That sense of limits to human interaction with the natural world found eloquent expression in the writings of Aldo Leopold and has been represented by a cartoon character, Mark Trail.  With origins in the first half of the twentieth century, Leopold’s most famous work, A Sand County Almanac, a collection of essays, appeared posthumously, in 1949, and in 1946 Mark Trail made his debut in American newspapers.  Both Leopold and Trail have been honored with thousands of acres of parkland, Leopold’s in southwestern New Mexico, Trail’s in northern Georgia, and the Mark Trail Wilderness is so far the only such reserve commemorating a cartoon character.

After serving along the Arizona and New Mexico border in the United States Forest Service, Leopold (1887-1948) moved to rural Sauk County, Wisconsin.  There he refined his ideas about “land as a community to which we belong,” rather than it being “a commodity belonging to us.”  Conserving land and its many inhabitants, from ants to oaks, believed Leopold, would “reap . . . an esthetic harvest . . . under science, [capable] of contributing to culture.”

For him, the hours before dawn were most congenial.  “Getting up early,” he wrote in his Almanac for October, “is a vice habitual in horned owls, stars, geese, and freight trains.”  Birds and stars and trains and Leopold shared a bond of reticence.  “Early risers feel at ease with each other,” he suggested, “perhaps because, unlike those who sleep late, they are given to understatement of their own achievements.”  For example, that horned owl, “in his trisyllabic commentary, plays down the story of the night’s murders.”  Likewise, the railroad, though loud, “has a kind of modesty:  his eye is single to his own noisy business, and he never comes roaring into somebody else’s camp.”  As have so many others, Leopold found comfort within earshot of the rails.  “I feel a deep security,” he admitted, “in this single-mindedness of freight trains.”

An avid hunter and fisherman, Leopold spent long hours smoking his pipe and mulling over the role of humans in the natural world.  He once thought of wolves as vermin, threats to the deer he liked to hunt, but after shooting a she-wolf and seeing “a fierce green fire dying in her eyes,” he rethought his prejudice against those creatures.  He also reconsidered the value of plants usually destroyed as weeds.  Over time, he developed a coherent ethical approach to land and all it sustains, whereby a living thing’s worth is not contingent upon its usefulness.

While Leopold was writing and lecturing on the ethical use of land, water, animals, and plants, in the May, 1936, issue of The Forum, Father John K. Ryan published “Are the Comics Moral?”  Ryan, later known for his translations of Saint Augustine and Saint Francis de Sales, objected to newspaper comics and their “lurid melodrama, told by pictures of brutal men doing brutal deeds.”  His argument recurred in Fredric Wertham’s Seduction of the Innocent (1954), with its claim that overt violence and subliminal homoeroticism in comics like Batman lead to juvenile delinquency.

According to The Smithsonian Collection of Newspaper Comics (1977), in the mid-1930s some comic strip artists began drawing in a realistic style and with ongoing narration, and “the aim of the new narrative strips was at the audience for boys’ adventure stories.”  After the Second World War, several new comic strips followed suit, Mark Trail among them.  Mark Trail was the creation of Ed Dodd (1902-1991), and Dodd’s work has been continued by Jack Elrod (1924-2016) and James Allen (born 1967).

Mark Trail is a perpetually fit and trim thirty-two, and he resembles a young Gregory Peck.  In seventy years the one change in his appearance came in 1983, when he quit smoking his formerly ever-present black billiard pipe.  He lives in mythical Lost Forest and spends much of his time outdoors, his occupation being a writer and photographer for a fictional magazine, Woods and Wildlife.  Often accompanying him are his faithful Saint Bernard, Andy, and his long-time girlfriend and later wife, Cherry, and their adopted son, Rusty.

The weekly comic strip features slow-paced adventure, tending to culminate in Trail confronting the bad guys and giving them a right to the jaw.  The Sunday version of the strip has always been a free-standing educational piece, wherein Trail presents facts about various flora and fauna, as well about the status of endangered species.  While the measured pace of the daily strip might not appeal to kids, the Sunday installment can keep their interest by conveying information without coming across as classroom tedium.

From 1956 to 1987 that educational role also occurred in Mark Trail’s Outdoor Tips, a daily single panel strip, usually in sports sections.  In addition, since 1997 Mark Trail has been the official spokes-character of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.  Special cartoons show Trail giving safety instructions for dealing with severe weather, and they also depict him urging people to buy NOAA radios.

Although Mark Trail has steered clear of partisan politics, in 2006 the strip addressed a recent political situation.  The catalyst was a United States Supreme Court decision, Kelo v. City of New London (2005), the Court’s leftist majority ruling that eminent domain allowed the state to transfer private property to another private owner for the purpose of economic development.  Enter Mark Trail defending property rights and challenging a casino owner’s scheme to use eminent domain to cut a road through Lost Forest to his casino.

Like a bear scooping up honey, forests can respectfully be left alone and appreciated.  As Tell Sackett recalled, “Pa, he always advised us boys to take time to contemplate.”  In another of L’Amour’s novels, The Proving Trail (1978), Kearney McRaven mused, “To ride fast, to travel far, these were empty things unless a man took the time to savor, to taste, to love, to simply be.”  Life lessons with which Aldo Leopold and Mark Trail would concur.


Daniel J. Heisey, O. S. B., is a Benedictine monk of Saint Vincent Archabbey, Latrobe, Pennsylvania, where he is known as Brother Bruno.  He teaches Church History at Saint Vincent Seminary.


Life Lessons from Father Logan

Like the film A Man for All Seasons (1966), Alfred Hitchcock’s film I Confess (1953) shows a good man thrust into a situation where there can be no compromise.  Hitchcock (1899-1980) was brought up Catholic, educated at a Jesuit school in London, and he was intrigued by the cinematic potential of I Confess, originally a stage play in 1902 by Paul Anthelme.  To make sure he got the film true to Catholic teaching, Hitchcock sought technical advice from Father Paul LaCouline, a moral theologian at Laval University.  From Hitchcock’s I Confess one can glean five life lessons, and the dialogue quoted below comes from the film’s screenplay by George Tabori and William Archibald.

I Confess presents Father Michael William Logan, a fictional young priest of the Archdiocese of Quebec, played by Montgomery Clift.  Logan has served his country and is now serving God.  At the start of the Second World War he volunteered for the Canadian army and saw combat as a sergeant in the Regina Rifle Regiment.  In historical reality, that regiment served in the Third Canadian Division storming Juno Beach during the Normandy invasion.

Back from the war, where his bravery earned him a Military Cross, Logan entered seminary.  Ordained two years, he becomes ensnared in a murder investigation after hearing the confession of a murderer, Otto Keller, a refugee who is also the rectory’s handyman.  Police investigators, led by Inspector Larrue, played by Karl Malden, piece together a puzzle that seems to identify Logan as the murderer.

Throughout the film Logan is haunted by the fact that honoring the seal of the confessional could lead him to be convicted of murder and sentenced to death.  It is a standard theme in Hitchcock’s films, an innocent man pursued as though he were guilty, a nightmarish world where the constitutional apparatus of justice, smugly convinced the right man is in custody, stands poised to condemn the wrong man.

Two darkly comic scenes underscore the unsettling truth that things are not what they seem:  whether to trust an advertisement for odorless paint; a bicycle tire that only appears to be flat.  True to form, Hitchcock keeps the suspense taut until the last seconds of the film.  That last scene, not to be spoiled here, shows Logan’s inner wrestling to the end.


  1. Know how to love. Before the war, Logan had a girlfriend, his childhood sweetheart, Ruth, played by Anne Baxter.  Their romance is told only from her point of view, thus underscoring Logan’s reticence.  Significantly, Ruth describes Logan as a serious man, serious about love and war.  Human relationships, Logan knows, are not to be taken lightly.  In his romantic friendship with Ruth, Logan strives to balance his desire for her with an inherited sense of chivalry.  Although the movie does not state it explicitly, this well-grounded approach to love and relationship, as well as responsibility, prepares him for committing himself to Christ.
  2. Be honest. As the police investigation closes in on Logan, he meets with Ruth, now married to Pierre Grandfort, a Member of Parliament.  Although she has been married seven years, she still loves Logan.  Logan seeks to discourage such emotional attachments and is open and candid with her:  “I don’t want you to lie to me, but I don’t want you to lie to yourself.”  She repeats that she still loves him and declares that even after all these years, neither of them has changed.  “I’ve changed,” Logan insists, adding, “you’ve changed, too.”  Her infatuation blinds her to the fact of life represented by his cassock and clerical collar.  “I want you to see things as they are,” he patiently explains, “and not go on hurting yourself.”  Logan’s human formation has taught him that honesty and humility intersect.
  3. Be rational. Logan teaches us that discerning one’s calling in life requires not simply our heart, but also our mind.  Our feelings may drive us to impetuous acts, while our reason reminds us of our promises and vows.  Living out one’s vocation well involves, when possible, careful pacing, sticking to a steady, daily pattern.  A priest in Logan’s day would have known from his intellectual formation the dogmatic constitution Dei Filius, the First Vatican Council’s definitive teaching about the harmony of faith and reason.  To Inspector Larrue he explains:  “I have a methodical mind.  I do have to take things one by one.”  Later in the same conversation Logan, surely trained in Thomistic logic, points out to the inspector, “A man of intelligence would not be led to believe anything on so little evidence.”
  4. Be faithful. Logan’s pastor tells a police detective, “Most of his time is given to his parishioners.”  In other words, his ordination sets him apart, but not above, to serve others.  Logan’s own sense of pastoral vocation is clear.  “I chose to be what I am,” Logan tells Ruth, “I believe in what I am.”  In the courtroom scene, Logan says from the witness box, “I never thought of the priesthood as offering a hiding place.”  He knows that his vocation as a parish priest makes him a public figure, and he knows the responsibilities of his calling, even when his fidelity is strongly tested.  “It’s easy for you to be good,” Otto Keller sneers at Logan, and Keller, using psychological projection, repeatedly calls Logan a coward.  The film makes clear that being good is a constant interior struggle, and it confirms that cowards cannot live a life of integrity.  While Keller schemes to save himself, Logan’s faithfulness to his vocation threatens to cost him his life.
  5. Know how to sacrifice. Logan modestly describes his wartime service by saying, “Well, I survived.”  Logan’s understatement, in Clift’s portrayal, conveys authentic humility.  Humility means being honest with oneself, knowing one’s abilities as well as one’s limits.  Logan knows that he survived the war with distinction, and he knows how he survived it, courage emerging through fear.  Nevertheless, he understands that he has no obligation to elaborate upon his role in D-Day or beyond.  During that time of physical and spiritual trial, though, he discerned a priestly vocation.  As Ruth observes, his letters home to her, always serious in tone, became fewer and fewer.  In weighing how best to dedicate his life, he thus left behind the prospect of a natural good, marriage, for an objectively higher good, seeking and serving God in celibate chastity.


A longer version of this essay appeared in Seminary Journal 15 (Fall, 2009), pp. 74-76.

Daniel J. Heisey, O. S. B., is a Benedictine monk of Saint Vincent Archabbey, Latrobe, Pennsylvania, where he is known as Brother Bruno.  He teaches Church history at Saint Vincent Seminary.


Somewheres East of Suez

In Humphrey Carpenter’s biography of J. R. R. Tolkien, we learn that Tolkien was fond of the novels of John Buchan.  Like Tolkien, Buchan had formative experiences in South Africa.  Tolkien was born there, and Buchan briefly served there as private secretary to Lord Milner, High Commissioner for overseeing reconstruction after the Boer War.  Buchan’s most famous character, Richard Hannay, was a mining engineer in South Africa before settling back in England and getting entangled in such adventures as recounted in The Thirty-nine Steps.  One of Buchan’s novels, Prester John, deals almost exclusively with South Africa, and it bears re-reading alongside The Hobbit.

First published in 1910, Prester John is a fast-paced boy’s adventure story.  As such, it shares elements with H. Rider Haggard’s King Solomon’s Mines (1886) and Robert Louis Stevenson’s Treasure Island (1883):  After a frightening encounter with a mysterious stranger, a boy must leave his widowed mother and their home in the British Isles, and he ends up in South Africa on a trek into dangerous mountains in search of fabulous ancient jewels.  The intrepid youth finds himself caught up in a savage battle over a rightful inheritance, and against all odds, he lives to return to the familiar routine of tea and scones, his thoughts often going back to his harrowing escapes.

In Buchan’s novel, the similarities are clear with stories about Allan Quatermain and Jim Hawkins, but equally clear are parallels found in Tolkien’s “there and back again” tale of Bilbo Baggins.  A major difference is Buchan’s hero, David Crawfurd, being in his late teens when he has to leave Scotland for South Africa, whereas Tolkien’s most famous hobbit is fifty when he leaves the Shire for Wilderland.

Also, just as critics of Tolkien’s The Hobbit see it in the context of ancient myth, they see Buchan’s Prester John in the context of British imperialism.  Mythic heroes leave home on a quest to recover invaluable treasure and return home victorious and transformed.  For a Christian, the ultimate fulfillment of this primeval epic is Christ, journeying from His heavenly home with God the Father to Earth and into Hell, conquering death and ascending into Heaven and His seat at the right hand of God.  In His divinity, Christ cannot change; in His fully human incarnation, He grew and matured.  His victorious quest for lost sheep, for sinful humans, has transformed multitudes.  Archetypes aside, modern critics read Buchan’s swashbuckling narrative as another overly masculine example of the sun never setting on a chance for British exploitation of native peoples.

Although Buchan set Prester John in the early twentieth century, he drew upon a medieval legend.  According to that story, believed by medieval Christians in the very marrow of their bones, somewhere beyond the eastern limits of Christian civilization lived a valiant Christian king, some said also a priest, hence his name of Prester John.  Since that legend’s origins in the twelfth century, Christians in Europe believed that they were obligated to go find and defend Prester John, harried as he was by Muslims.  Buchan’s version makes Prester John a charismatic African warlord named Laputa posing as a Protestant minister, waiting his chance to rally his people and lead them back to their historical greatness.  Into that geopolitical drama David Crawfurd stumbles.

How wide of the author’s mark a book can be read finds a supreme example in an ardent admirer of Buchan and his books, Wilfred Thesiger.  Thesiger (1910-2003) was born to wealthy, well-connected British parents stationed in Abyssinia (modern Ethiopia), and as a boy he loved its dusty and rugged terrain and thrilled to its claim to having the Ark of the Covenant.  When Thesiger was sent to Eton and Oxford, he regarded England, with its greenery and pavements, as an alien world.  Prester John in particular he re-read as a reminder of the wild Africa he longed with aching homesickness to explore.

In his autobiography, The Life of My Choice (1987), Thesiger recalled his boyhood love of Prester John.  Yet, for him it was not a portal for identifying with and joining vicariously in the cliff-hanging adventures of young David Crawfurd.  “This story of Laputa,” Thesiger wrote, “the Zulu leader who died tragically and dramatically while attempting to free his people, made an indelible impression on me.”

At Oxford, where he studied history and distinguished himself in boxing, Thesiger mulled over a plan to return to Abyssinia.  He joined the Oxford Exploration Club, whose president was John Buchan.  Thesiger wrote to Buchan, who lived outside Oxford at an estate called Elsfield Manor, and Buchan had Thesiger to his house several times for tea and talk about Thesiger’s developing proposal for exploring hitherto uncharted regions of eastern Africa.

More than fifty years later, Thesiger vividly recollected Buchan, “his sensitive, ascetic face etched with lines of pain but lit by his innate kindness, his lean body in comfortable country tweeds.”  Buchan ensconced in his Oxfordshire manor house with his books and his pipes evoked Tolkien’s own cozy home life in suburban Oxford, as well as that of Bilbo Baggins in his hobbit hole.  Yet tea and tobacco, not to mention potatoes and port, were British staples because Britain held, in Rudyard Kipling’s phrase in his poem “Recessional” (1897), “Dominion over palm and pine.”

It was a pervasive British tension.  While some people were content never to stray too far from the safety of hearth and home, others believed that Britain had a duty to peoples beyond the blighted cliffs.  The former attitude was dubbed being a Little Englander, and the latter was seen as championing Greater Britain.  In Empire (2003), Niall Ferguson noted, “The idea of Greater Britain is nowhere more appealingly expressed than in [John Buchan’s] novels.”

A recurring British yearning for exotic shores finds voice in Kipling’s poem, “Mandalay” (1892).  There a young British soldier has come back to London from the Far East, and he laments the drab constraints of his new civilian life:  “Ship me somewheres east of Suez, where the best is like the worst/Where there aren’t no Ten Commandments and a man can raise a thirst.”  Both David Crawfurd and Bilbo Baggins were eager to get home, but in time word from the faraway lands where they had risked their lives broke their peace and quiet.  Like Kipling’s young soldier, they heard again the call of distant bells and remembered distant dawns.


Daniel J. Heisey, O. S. B., is a Benedictine monk of Saint Vincent Archabbey, Latrobe, Pennsylvania, where he is known as Brother Bruno.  He teaches Church History at Saint Vincent Seminary.


Casey Jones and the Promised Land

An advertisement for a new line of pipe tobacco named for Casey Jones calls to mind that controversial American folk-hero.  “When most people think of old-time railroading,” wrote Oliver Jensen in 1975, “they think of Casey Jones roaring into eternity with his hand on the whistle cord.”  John Luther “Casey” Jones (born 1863) was the only person killed when on the foggy and rainy night of 30 April, 1900, in Vaughan, Mississippi, his Illinois Central passenger and mail train rounded a curve and collided with the caboose of a stalled freight train sticking out from a siding.

As Christian Wolmar wrote in The Iron Road (2014), Jones “died while travelling too fast [and] went on to become a cult figure in American folklore and folksong.”  That song, composed right after the wreck by a railroader friend of Jones, has gone through some forty-five variations, including one slandering Mrs. Jones as unfaithful and another used from 1957 to 1958 as the theme song for a half-hour television series, Casey Jones.  Like the song, that wholesome show held scant resemblance to historical reality.  For example, the round-faced and burly Alan Hale, six years before becoming the Skipper on Gilligan’s Island, portrayed the lean and oval-faced Jones.

Jones grew up in Cayce, in the southwestern tip of Kentucky, and his nickname came from the sound of that place name.  In contrast to pioneer heroes like Daniel Boone or rural heroes like Johnny Appleseed, Jones was, as Milton Bagby wrote in the December, 1999, issue of American History, “a modern hero, a man of the industrial age who lost his life at the helm of a machine.”

Critics dismiss his heroic standing and thus overlook in Jones’s story not only heroism, but also interracial and religious aspects.  His detractors see Jones as reckless and headstrong, and they point out that his testing of limits got him nine suspensions in ten years.  Even family friend and biographer, Fred J. Lee, writing in 1939, called him “irrepressible but reliable.”  Nevertheless, railroad owners and customers preferred punctuality, and Jones earned a reputation for getting to his destination on the time advertised in newspapers and printed in railroad timetables.

Here we see a man eager to keep his word and that of his company, a man who took pride in doing well a job that bore his name.  He had worked his way up from brakeman to engineer; as an engineer he moved from freight trains to passenger trains.  Quietly confident and a church-going, tee-totaling family man, he had the respect of his peers, his crew, and railroad executives.  He became well-known not only for being on time, but also for installing on his engine a six-tone whistle that resembled the call of a whippoorwill.

The night of his death he began his southbound run from Memphis 75 minutes behind schedule; at the time of the collision, he had made up all but two minutes of that time, largely by going over 100 miles an hour.  In the days of horse and buggy, such speeds were nearly unimaginable.  A young man commanding fantastic speeds by controlling a massive machine that raced along steel rails was the envy of every boy along the line.  For Jones, the thrill of such risk and velocity may also have stirred in him a sensual element.  Almost his last words to his fireman before realizing danger loomed ahead and thus taking desperate braking action were, “The old girl’s got her high-heeled slippers on tonight!”

According to his loyal family and friends, as well as admirers who never met him, Jones sacrificed his life to save those of the passengers and crew in the twelve cars behind him.  He became a Christ-like figure, and one permutation of the ballad about him said he “Climbed into the cab with the orders in his hand/Says, ‘This is my trip to the Promised Land’.”

The wording signifies a religious tradition outside the one practiced by Jones.  He came from Welsh Protestant stock, and while working for the Mobile and Ohio Railroad, he fell in love with Mary Joanna “Janie” Brady, a daughter of the owner of the boarding house where Jones lived in Jackson, Tennessee.  The Bradys were Irish Catholic, and Jones agreed to take instruction and was baptized in Saint Bridget’s Catholic Church in Whistler, Alabama.  On 25 November, 1886, Janie and Casey were married at Saint Mary’s Church, Jackson, Tennessee.  In due course they had two sons and a daughter.

A Southerner open to Catholicism, Jones grew up when Southern Democrats were founding the Ku Klux Klan and before the United States Supreme Court ruled seven to one in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) for the constitutionality of states legislating “separate but equal” facilities for whites and blacks, facilities that included railway cars.  Honesty requires acknowledging that joining the Court’s majority was Edward Douglass White, the second Catholic to serve on the Court; the first had been Roger Brooke Taney, best known today for the Dred Scott decision (1857).

Whether working on railroads or playing neighborhood or company baseball, the 6’4″ Jones spent his life around other men whose work and play also put calluses on their hands and dirt under their fingernails.  Those men included sons of former slaves.  The man who came up with the words for the first version of “The Ballad of Casey Jones,” Wallace Saunders, was what today would be called an African-American; Jones’s fireman, Simeon “Sim” Webb, also was a black man.

As Jones strained every muscle to keep his engine, Number 382, dubbed the Cannonball Express, from ramming into that stopped freight train, he ordered Sim Webb to jump to safety.  Webb obeyed, suffering cuts and bruises; he lived to be eighty-three, dying in 1957.  Jones brought his train from around 75 miles per hour down to close to 35 before it smashed into the freight’s caboose.  Jones’s locomotive flipped backwards and on its side, and his body, mangled and scalded, was found under the cab.

Casey Jones’s funeral Mass was offered at Saint Mary’s church in Jackson, and he was buried in Mount Calvary Cemetery.  As Oliver Jensen wrote in The American Heritage History of Railroads in America (1975), Jones was “steadfast,” seen across the nation as personifying “the brave engineer.”  Over the years, with heartfelt clarity, Sim Webb would say, “Mr. Casey was a fine man.”


Paul VI, Duns Scotus, and Dramatic License

Fifty years ago, on 14 July, 1966, Pope Paul VI issued an Apostolic Letter, Alma parens, marking the 700th anniversary of the birth of John Duns Scotus.  Although Scotus’ argument in favor of belief in the Immaculate Conception of Mary influenced Pope Pius IX’s Apostolic Constitution of 1854 defining that dogma, Alma parens was the first papal document on Scotus.

On 20 March, 1993, Pope John Paul II beatified Scotus, and on 7 July, 2010, at a Wednesday audience, Pope Benedict XVI spoke about Scotus.  In these and other writings and speeches about Scotus, both John Paul II and Benedict XVI quoted from Paul VI’s Alma parens.  Thus, papal teaching about Scotus has developed, by Church standards, rapidly, and Scotus has been proposed to the faithful as a model of holiness and as a reliable intercessor.

Scotus (1266-1308) was contemporary with Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) and Marco Polo (1254-1324), but he remains less well-known.  A Franciscan priest, he was born in southeastern Scotland and taught at universities in Paris, Oxford, and Cologne, where he died and is entombed.  Even for students of philosophy, his philosophical writings are difficult, and he worked within the Augustinian intellectual tradition while drawing upon empirical Aristotelianism.  Some later medieval thinkers used Scotus’ ideas to develop a form of voluntarism, a philosophical approach placing the will above the intellect.  For an extreme voluntarist, emotion becomes superior to reason.

Since the will is related to the capacity to love, Scotus himself took a more careful line, one of several refinements that led to him being dubbed “the Subtle Doctor.”  According to James Hitchcock’s indispensable History of the Catholic Church (2012), Scotus gave the will “primacy over the intellect:  the mind informed the will, but the will first determined the perceptions of the mind.”  Reason can inform our choices, but our choices influence our reasoning.

Pope Paul VI’s letter anticipated scholarly conferences to be held in mid-September, 1966, at Oxford and Edinburgh to commemorate Scotus’ 700th birthday.  Since most of the scholars attending those conferences would be Christians from various churches and confessions, Paul VI suggested that they use Scotus’ writings as a basis for future ecumenical discussion.  He noted that Scotus was part of the Augustinian heritage shared by Christians on both sides of the Reformation.

As with other authoritative writings by that saintly Pope, Alma parens seems to have fallen on deaf ears.  Catholic scholars of the Thomist school shy away from Scotus, despite his personal orthodoxy, as a first step towards Protestantism and Modernism, and Protestant scholars and also some Catholics wonder why Scotus, now obscure in all senses, would be a better source for ecumenical dialogue than Augustine of Hippo himself or even C. S. Lewis.

An unexpected cultural development since Alma parens has been an award-winning film about Scotus.  The sketchiness of Scotus’ biography allows for dramatic license, and so in 2010 an Italian television network, TVCO, produced Duns Scoto.  Under the title Blessed Duns Scotus:  Defender of the Immaculate Conception, it is commercially available on DVD from Ignatius Press.  Italian mime and actor Adriano Braidotti portrayed Scotus.  In 2011 this movie won Best Film and Best Actor at the Vatican’s second annual Mirabile Dictu International Catholic Film Festival.

Beautifully filmed and well-acted, Blessed Duns Scotus depicts Scotus’ prayer life, his teaching, and his courage.  The film begins with Scotus going into exile from Paris to Oxford because he refused to sign a document issued by France’s King Philip IV condemning Pope Boniface VIII.  The film culminates with Scotus engaging Dominican theologians in a public disputation about Mary’s Immaculate Conception.  A lesser creative team would have made such a film tedious at best.  Instead, they raise it above the earnest and sugary fare of a few other religious movies one could name.

An unusual aspect of this film is the screen credits at the end of the movie explaining that a scene in which Scotus speaks about the Eucharist derives from a meditation by Chiara Lubich (1920-2008).  Although Scotus had comments about the Eucharist, they are dense and philosophical, not the best text for a television movie.

In the days of Aquinas and Scotus, reference to “the council” meant Lateran IV, held in Rome in 1215.  That council used a new term, transubstantiation, to sum up Church teaching on the Eucharist.  The council thus definitively rejected the teaching of Berengar of Tours (c. 1010-1088), that, using Aristotelian terminology, accidents and substance cannot be separated, and so for Berengar the Eucharist was merely a memorial meal, spiritually symbolic but not the Body and Blood of Christ.

Like Aquinas, Scotus argued for transubstantiation.  Nevertheless, Scotus put emphasis on God’s freedom, while acknowledging that God cannot attempt a logical impossibility, such as trying to create a round square.  A student of the works of Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109), Scotus was wary of Anselm positing that God was required to do something.

So, for Scotus the big question became:  Could God have chosen to commune with believers by some means other than transubstantiation?  Scotus argued that God could have chosen to leave the accidents and substance of the bread and wine yet include Christ’s body, blood, soul, and divinity (consubstantiation), but He chose to remove the substance of the bread and wine and replace it with Christ’s own substance (transubstantiation).  Since the council of 1215, to believe otherwise is not to be Catholic.

In the film, Scotus speaks of the Eucharist as the source of unity amongst Catholics.  He explains to a young friar that by partaking of Christ’s Body and Blood, we become part of His mystical body and thus become united with each other in Him.  Scotus then describes how through the Eucharist the Holy Spirit makes possible the spousal relationship between Christ the bridegroom and His bride, the Church.  It is excellent theology, but it comes from the twentieth century.

In the spirit of Alma parens, the film Blessed Duns Scotus presents Scotus as a sympathetic character, worthy of further attention.  While it conveys his brilliance as an academic theologian, it also presents a real man with real struggles who preferred virtue to vice and is on the path to sainthood.  The film shows Scotus as a holy man, as a teacher, and as a champion of unpopular beliefs.  All the better that it can do so while letting piety infuse fine style.

Pete Hegseth’s In the Arena

In the late ninth century, in his preface to his translation of Boethius’ Consolation of Philosophy, England’s King Alfred the Great wrote that a king must have the support of men who pray, men who fight, and men who work.  He meant the clergy, soldiers, and farmers, merchants, and artisans.  Those ideals of faith, fighting, and productivity were extolled by Theodore Roosevelt and have a new champion in Pete Hegseth.

Only in his mid-thirties, Hegseth has had a full life:  from a small town in Minnesota, where his father was a public school teacher and his mother worked at home and at several part-time jobs; to studies at Princeton and Harvard; a job at Bear Stearns; service in the United States Army National Guard, taking him on tours of duty in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Guantánamo Bay.  He has married twice, the first ending in divorce, and he has three sons.  Incisive and articulate, he shares his intelligence and experience in articles for National Review and television appearances on Fox.

This book derives from the inspiration Hegseth finds in a quotation from a speech made in April, 1910, at the Sorbonne by former president Theodore Roosevelt.  The quote:

It is not the critic who counts; not the man who points out how the strong man stumbles, or where the doer of deeds could have done them better.  The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena, whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood; who strives valiantly; who errs, who comes short again and again, because there is no effort without error and shortcoming; but who does actually strive to do the deeds; who knows great enthusiasms, the great devotions; who spends himself in a worthy cause; who at the best knows in the end the triumph of high achievement, and who at the worst, if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly, so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who neither know victory nor defeat.

Throughout his three deployments, Hegseth carried a black framed copy of that quote in his duffle bag.  In this book’s eight chapters, Hegseth looks at major themes found in Roosevelt’s speech, “Citizenship in a Republic,” the full text of which appears as an appendix.

Clear and direct, Hegseth is aware of Roosevelt’s flaws and his own.  Regarding Roosevelt, he says, “While I proudly count Roosevelt as my fellow countryman, I recognize his unfortunate political metamorphosis.”  As for himself, he is candid without indulging in the sort of details lapped up by people who used to watch Oprah:  “I have failed—professionally and personally—at every turn of my life; saved only by the redemptive grace of Jesus Christ.”

As that confession indicates, Hegseth is a man of faith as well as a man of action, but he wants his readers to avoid “misplacing their moral energy toward smaller, self-righteous, and socially conservative causes, rather than mustering the courage to fight the larger battles for goodness and truth.”  To that end, he says, “Give me a cursing, drinking, and mistake-making sinner willing to fight for America over a self-important, insular, and irrelevant saint any day of the week.”

It is a sentiment worthy of hearty applause.  Within a monastic context, sometimes one hears of a young monk who decides that the fast-track to sanctity is to go barefoot and never wear a watch, never to shower or shave, and always to try to talk in a dreamy tone of voice in words reminiscent of a pastel holy card.  It was the sort of superficial and self-absorbed piety (really, vanity) disapproved of even in the fourteenth century by the now anonymous author of The Cloud of Unkowing.

Like that anonymous spiritual writer, Hegseth encourages steady growth (and regular pruning) in virtue.  Despite his seemingly dismissive use of the phrase, there is much in this book for a social conservative to endorse.  Like Roosevelt, Hegseth sees good character as the basis for good citizenship and thus for the strength of a republic.  “Courage, faith, honor, self-restraint, common sense, individual responsibility, and resolve,” Hegseth writes, “all are used by Roosevelt to describe character, and all are in shorter supply in today’s America.”

Those characteristics are running low, Hegseth, believes, because, “From fifth-place trophies to . . . helicopter parents . . . we are raising a society of entitled, coddled, sheltered, feeble, and emasculated future citizens.”  He notes that fathers and mothers used to teach their children “to be virile, to value strength, vigor, and victory.”  Lest he be mistaken for a chest-thumping lout, he defines his terms.  “Being a virile people,” he explains, “doesn’t mean being brutes or barbarians—it means raising citizens physically and morally capable of defending the freedom they’ve inherited.”

Once again following Roosevelt’s lead, Hegseth finds four “root causes” for the current social weakening.  Roosevelt addressed an audience of thousands at Paris’s foremost university, and he meant his message as a warning not only for the French republic, but also for his own.  While Hegseth’s book is addressed primarily to Americans, the four root causes he diagnoses can also apply elsewhere.  They are:  “Rights overtaking duties, the destructive pursuit of utopia, pervasive moral relativism, and class warfare.”  Two symptoms of society going askew, says Hegseth, are students, such as his little brother, being taught “their Native American ‘spirit names,’ but not the names of their American founders.”  Likewise, something has gone wrong when “Earth Day is a huge deal, D-Day not so much.”

That Hegseth’s brother, a descendant of Norwegian immigrants, could have a Native American “spirit name” is doubtful.  To teach him that name and not those of the Founding Fathers is as absurd as if a Catholic college were to sponsor a Hijab Day so students could learn about Muslim traditions, when it would be considered retrograde to hold a Mantilla Day to teach them about Catholic traditions.

Whatever one’s place on the political spectrum, Hegseth’s book challenges on every page.  As he says of Roosevelt’s speech, Hegseth’s book is “largely about cultivating good and gutsy citizenship in order to maintain a robust and free republic.”  Since human nature never changes, it is a universal and enduring ideal.  Even beyond republics, a Christian king like Alfred the Great wanted integrity and self-discipline to enliven his praying, fighting, and working people.

Richard Weaver, American Literacy, and Louis L’Amour

Richard M. Weaver, in the Introduction to Ideas Have Consequences (1948), doubted the value of universal literacy.  “It is not what people can read,” he said, “it is what they do read, and what they can be made, by any imaginable means, to learn from what they read, that determine the issue of this noble experiment.”

The phrase “noble experiment” alluded to Herbert Hoover, who used it to describe the failed federal policy of Prohibition.  For Weaver, promoting universal literacy was futile, since Western culture had degraded almost to the point of no return.  As proof, he contrasted ancient Greece with modern America.

Regarding an ancient Athenian, Weaver claimed in Chapter 6 that “Privations of the flesh were no obstacle to his marvelous world of imagination.”  One example was ancient and modern theatre.  “The Athenians sat outdoors on stone to behold their tragedies,” wrote Weaver, whereas “the modern New Yorker sits in an inclined plush armchair to witness some play properly classified as amusement.”

Weaver overlooked the fact that when not undergoing the catharsis of tragedy, Athenians enjoyed bawdy comedies by Aristophanes, and in Weaver’s day New York theatre-goers were buying tickets to lengthy tragedies by an American Nobel laureate, Eugene O’Neill.  Moreover, O’Neill saw his work in continuity with his ancient literary ancestors, hence a title like Mourning Becomes Electra.

Nevertheless, for Weaver, as America approached the middle of the twentieth century, it had all been downhill.  With reference to Midwestern towns in the satiric novels of Sinclair Lewis, another American winner of the Nobel Prize for literature, Weaver mockingly declared, “[H]ow many Americans have returned from Europe with terrible tales of the chill and draftiness of medieval castles and Renaissance palaces, with stories of deficient plumbing and uncomfortable chairs! . . . Yet it is just such people who will remain indifferent to the drabness of Gopher Prairie and Zenith and find their mental pabulum in drugstore fiction.”

Weaver’s book, snobbish at times, remains important, offering an astute critique of the lasting cultural and intellectual consequences of Nominalism, advanced in the fourteenth century by William of Occam.  Nominalism’s philosophical error is best characterized by Humpty Dumpty, who told Alice in Through the Looking Glass (1871), “When I use a word, . . . it means just what I choose it to mean, neither more nor less.”  Weaver’s book appeared the same year as George Orwell’s dystopian novel, 1984, and in those books both men exposed how willful abuse of language could serve a socialist regime’s tyranny.

As for literacy, Weaver’s snide remark about drugstore fiction begs the question what free people ought to read.  By the end of this century, for the reading public twentieth-century American fiction will mean books by Ray Bradbury and Louis L’Amour.

Bradbury (1920-2012) became synonymous with science fiction, and his obituary in The Wall Street Journal explained, his “science fiction and fantasy stories helped establish those pulp magazine genres as literature.”  L’Amour (1908-1988) likewise began his writing career contributing to pulp magazines, and in 1953 he developed his first novel from one of his short stories, “The Gift of Cochise.”  John Wayne had read and liked the story so much he turned it into a movie, Hondo.  L’Amour’s collected short stories fill seven volumes, and among his eighty-six novels is a seventeen-volume saga of the Sackett family.

Both Bradbury and L’Amour have had their work transformed into other media, and both men were highly honored in their lifetimes.  Among their many honors, in 2004 Bradbury received from George W. Bush the National Medal of Arts, and in 1984 Ronald Reagan presented L’Amour with the Presidential Medal of Freedom.  In 1982 L’Amour became the first novelist to receive the Congressional Gold Medal; the only other man of letters to receive that award was Robert Frost.

Serious literary critics will sniff and say that at least in Bradbury’s The Martian Chronicles (1950), Fahrenheit 451 (1953), and Dandelion Wine (1957) one finds modern parables dealing with deep issues.  Bradbury used Mars and a mythical Midwestern town, Green Town, as settings for looking into questions of unchanging human nature confronted with the surreal.  A lover of books and public libraries, he also imagined a future state where firemen burn books, lest the ideas in them make people unhappy.

In contrast, critics still tend to relegate L’Amour to the disposable realm of cheap magazines.  Although his lean prose is less lyrical than Bradbury’s, one finds the same strengths as Bradbury’s in the stories of Louis L’Amour.  While he is best known for Westerns, L’Amour’s fiction has a wide range, from detective stories to tales of merchant seamen and prizefighters.

If latter-day Weavers doubt whether popular fiction can convey traditional values, they ought to delve into the many volumes by Louis L’Amour.  Despite their rough settings and rough characters, his tales avoid using rough language.  Most of his novels and short stories depict men and women minding their own business until crossed by strangers who are greedy and violent.  Amid the taut adventure created by that tension, L’Amour’s protagonists must face questions of loyalty and integrity, of keeping one’s word and doing one’s duty.

Leaving school at fifteen, L’Amour undertook difficult and dangerous jobs, including lumberjack and professional boxer, yet all the while he read voraciously.  Like his passion for boxing, his love of books and self-education features throughout his writing.  L’Amour’s frontier characters echo Alexis de Tocqueville, who said in Democracy in America (1840) that the first time he read William Shakespeare’s Henry V was in an American’s log cabin.

In L’Amour’s novel Flint (1960), the enigmatic main character, an ailing Gilded Age businessman variously named James T. Kettleman or Jim Flint, visits a ranch house in New Mexico and appreciates the small library there:  Charles Dickens, Anthony Trollope, Walter Scott, Washington Irving, William Shakespeare, David Hume’s History of England.  “He was not surprised by the quality of the authors,” explains the narrator, “for he had read the journals of the trappers who came west, and he had known many western men, and knew of the books they read.  They could carry few, so they carried the best.”

In another novel, To Tame a Land (1965), L’Amour’s main character and narrator is a young man, Ryan Tyler, orphaned and alone.  He soon gains a mentor, who gives the boy a copy of Plutarch’s Lives and tells him to read it five times, assuring him, “You’ll like it better each time.”  When the boy says that he is a slow reader, the older man says, “This is a book to be read that way.  Taste it, roll the flavor on your tongue.”

Later, the young narrator recounts, “Beside campfires under the icy Teton peaks, I read of Hannibal and of Cato.”  Eventually in his travels he visits a family, “the first time I’d been inside a house in over a year,” and there he gravitates to the bookcase, with its editions of “Tacitus, Thucydides, Plato, and a dozen others that were mostly history.”

In The Proving Trail (1978), L’Amour returned to this theme.  This time the narrator is eighteen year-old Kearney McRaven, who comes into town and learns that his widower father has been shot and killed.  Accounts of the killing differ, and the young man must discover the truth before he meets the same obscure end.  He befriends a widow and her daughter, and on his first call at their cabin, he enjoys his coffee and lingers over a shelf of books.  “There were a couple of novels by Sir Walter Scott,” he recalls, “Little Dorrit by Charles Dickens, and Vivian Grey by Benjamin Disraeli.”

Missing from all these lists is one book Tocqueville saw in every American bookshop, the Bible.  Its absence from the shelves perused by L’Amour’s characters is best explained by the likelihood that those settlers kept their Bibles beside their beds.  Gentlemen would not have seen that part of the house, and all L’Amour’s heroes are gentlemen.

Whether L’Amour’s stories motivate someone to read Plutarch or Dickens, Tacitus or Trollope, his fiction reflects virtues they admired.  For Richard Weaver universal literacy was worthwhile only if people learned from their reading.  If Mars and Green Town, not to mention Narnia and Middle Earth, are not one’s cup of tea, the realistic world of Louis L’Amour’s pioneers and detectives, sailors and boxers could be just the place for learning more about courage, prudence, and fidelity.

Ten Years of American Conservatism

An essayist’s governing principle is that more can be said in a thousand words than in a thousand pages.  Ten years ago ISI Books published American Conservatism:  An Encyclopedia, a thousand pages containing 626 entries varying in length from 250 to 2500 words.  In that hefty volume comes together the best of both worlds.

Time after time, critics of conservatism variously mock it or vilify it, declaring it to be moronic, insane, or evil, or somehow a monstrous mutant combining all three.  In this book’s Introduction, the editors, Bruce Frohnen, Jeremy Beer, and Jeffrey O. Nelson, explain that they and the 216 contributors to American Conservatism focus on conservatism as a formidable intellectual movement in the United States since the Second World War.

That movement’s intellectual ancestors could be traced back to Moses, Plato, Saint Thomas Aquinas, and John Locke, but the editors decided to go back only to the mid-eighteenth century.  To the extent that this intellectual movement, launched mainly by Richard Weaver’s Ideas Have Consequences (1948) and Russell Kirk’s The Conservative Mind (1953), has influenced or been influenced by political campaigns and decisions, the editors included such political figures as Dwight Eisenhower and Antonin Scalia, as well as earlier American conservatives, such as John Adams and Alexander Hamilton.

The editors then explain by what criteria they selected people, institutions, and ideas for American Conservatism.  The editors had a preferential option for “politicians and pundits” who have had a “deep and lasting influence on conservatism,” and foreign thinkers and politicians and ones from before 1945 who “had a significant bearing on conservatism in America since the end of World War II.”  For folks who gasp at conservatives as the barbarians at the gates, or more locally, as cranky Uncle Henry who must be kept away from the guests at Topher and Tiffany’s wedding reception, this book should serve to open eyes, if not minds.

In this encyclopedia one will learn the difference between neoconservatives and palaeoconservatives, fusionists and libertarians, the Heritage Foundation and the John Birch Society.  From 1966 to 1999 William F. Buckley, Jr., hosted Firing Line, a weekly television show on PBS in which he interviewed prominent people from across the political spectrum.  In that spirit, American Conservatism included not only reserved and reticent Republicans in dark grey suits, men like Calvin Coolidge and Robert Taft, but also such Democrats as Thomas Jefferson and Stephen Douglas, William Jennings Bryan and George Wallace.

As that brief list suggests, in these pages one may sample the rich diversity within American conservatism.  Here one finds entries on Clare Boothe Luce and Gertrude Himmelfarb, Francis Fukuyama and Thomas Sowell.  One imagines a luncheon conversation among them and such featured religious leaders as Richard John Neuhaus, James Dobson, and Will Herberg.

In addition to succinct biographical sketches of hundreds of influential conservatives, there are entries on issues important to conservatives, but on which they disagree:  issues ranging from abortion to welfare policy, capital punishment to supply-side economics.  Other issues find conservatives of all stripes in agreement:  family and private property are good; Marxism and totalitarianism are bad.  Also presented are legal cases in which conservatives took intense interest, from the trial of Alger Hiss to the Supreme Court case involving Pennsylvania’s Grove City College.

As one would expect, there are entries on conservative heroes like Edmund Burke and Ronald Reagan, Barry Goldwater and Margaret Thatcher, but the encyclopedia has its surprises.  Continental Europe is represented by Switzerland’s Jacob Burckhardt, Germany’s Wilhelm Röpke, and France’s Alexis de Tocqueville.  Noteworthy are European émigrés such as Ludwig von Mises, Leo Strauss, Edward Teller, and Eric Voegelin.  There are three Jesuits (Francis Canavan, John Courtney Murray, and James V. Schall) and one Benedictine (Stanley L. Jaki); a saint (John Paul II) and two on the path to sainthood (John Henry Newman and Fulton Sheen).  There are the perennially odious (Ayn Rand and Richard Nixon) and the now obscure (Revilo P. Oliver and Frank Chodorov).

Literary figures abound, from Robert Frost and Nathaniel Hawthorne to C. S. Lewis and George Orwell, from T. S. Eliot and Flannery O’Connor to Agnes Repplier and Walker Percy.  Historians appear as well, from Henry Adams and Christopher Dawson to Daniel J. Boorstin and Francis Parkman.  Less narrative are numerous economists, from Friedrich von Hayek to Adam Smith.  There are journalists such as H. L. Mencken, Walter Lippmann, and William Safire, and journals such as First Things, National Review, and The Weekly Standard.

The book also has its quirks.  Given the editorial criterion of significant Anglo-American influence, one is baffled by an entry on Dinesh D’Souza but not John Foster Dulles; Dan Quayle but not Winston Churchill.  Whereas one expects the entry on G. K. Chesterton, absent is Malcolm Muggeridge.  Although, by wise editorial choice, Grant Wood’s painting “Stone City” graces the front cover of America Conservatism, the text itself passes over the visual arts.  True, there are entries on a few American art critics, and there is an entry on “media, conservative,” about conservative newspapers, magazines, blogs, talk radio, and Fox News.

Nevertheless, what conservatives seek to conserve is not only an overflowing bookcase.  For instance, an encyclopedia focusing on conservative intellectuals ought to acknowledge the media phenomenon that was Kenneth Clark’s television series and book Civilisation (1969).  Countless people still relish his lush display of masterpieces of Western art and architecture.  Put another way, American Conservatism could have done without an entry on a marginal lunatic, Ezra Pound, and had one on Grant Wood.

After all, more Americans have developed or reinforced conservative political and cultural ideals from admiring Wood’s paintings and those of Norman Rockwell, and from watching the films of Frank Capra and Cecil B. DeMille, than from studying Pound’s cantos or dozens of philosophical works competing in the final round for Most Boring Book Since Boethius.  (Yes, I know, long after we are dust, people will still be reading Boethius, who will still be boring.)

In 2012 the publishers of Encyclopaedia Britannica announced that the 2010 edition would be the last to appear in print.  Henceforth that great work, begun in 1768, would be available only on-line.  Bibliophiles must face the sad fact that the encyclopedia as codex has gone the way of the papyrus scroll.  However, American Conservatism is a durable amphibian, after ten years still remaining in print, on paper and also in electronic format.

Pieces of Western Culture

Around 1766 a new form of fun began, so 2016 is as good a time as any to commemorate it.  While for centuries people with mathematical minds had been amusing themselves with chess and cards, 250 years ago people with more pictorial minds got their turn.  By 1766 John Spilsbury, a young printer and map maker in London, had invented “dissected maps, for teaching geography,” what we now call jigsaw puzzles.

According to Linda Hannas’ The English Jigsaw Puzzle (1972), the immediate antecedent was a game based on a map.  In 1759 John Jeffreys, a writing master and geographer in Chapel Street, Westminster, created a game on a piece of canvas in which the players, as travelers, moved around a map of Europe, each turn determined by throwing dice.  He called it A Journey through Europe, or The Play of Geography.  Modern English-language board games, such as Monopoly, trace their origins back to it.

Also in Westminster, in Charing Cross, was Thomas Jeffreys, possibly related to John Jeffreys, who was an engraver and cartographer.  He was also designated Geographer to the King.  Hannas speculated that Thomas Jeffreys may have doubted whether “the King’s geographer [ought] to turn his attention to adapting the serious trade of cartography to the entertainment of children,” but she noted that, whatever his misgivings, in 1770 he published a comparable game.

One of Thomas Jeffreys’s apprentices was John Spilsbury, having begun his apprenticeship at age fourteen.  The middle of three sons, he hailed from Worcester, where his parents, having buried their first spouses, had been married in the cathedral.  Again a widow, Spilsbury’s mother accompanied her teenage sons to London.  In 1760, at twenty-one, John Spilsbury completed his apprenticeship, and the following year he married Sarah May, originally from Newmarket, Suffolk.  By 1762 he had set up his own print and map shop in Covent Garden, in Russell Court, off Drury Lane.  An enterprising young man, Spilsbury also sold silk head scarves printed with road maps of England and Wales.

Hannas reproduced one of Spilsbury’s “trade cards,” part business card and part advertisement, and according to it, Spilsbury sold some thirty different “dissected maps.”  They included maps of Europe and various countries, from Scotland to Turkey, Portugal to Russia; maps of North America and South America; and maps of the ancient world.  Of points in the Western hemisphere, only Jamaica had its own dissected map.  Spilsbury mounted each map on thin mahogany and cut them into several dozen pieces, selling each dissected map in a square box.

Spilsbury made his name with his new invention, but he died young, on 3 April, 1769, not yet thirty.  Among the scarce documentation for his brief life are church records.  He and his wife, his brother and their mother, attended services at a local Moravian church, although only his brother joined.  Instead, John Spilsbury, transplanted Shropshire lad, died an Anglican and was buried from his parish church, Saint Mary-le-Strand.

What began as an educational tool for children became a diversion for adults as well.  By the early nineteenth century, printers had gone beyond dissected maps and had cut up mounted prints depicting historical persons, famous places, and scenes from literature.  Soon jigsaw puzzles featured prints of current events, such as the coronation of Queen Victoria.

Today’s jigsaw puzzles expand the range of images available and tend to come in 500 or 1000 pieces.  Jigsaw puzzles now reproduce works by famous artists, whether Michelangelo or John James Audubon, Claude Monet or Norman Rockwell.  In addition to the traditional square or rectangular shapes, there are round or triangular puzzles, as well as reversible puzzles and three-dimensional puzzles, often of landmarks like the Eiffel Tower or the Chrysler Building.  A recent development in jigsaws has been as therapy for Alzheimer’s and dementia patients; some companies design for them puzzles of twelve large pieces forming cheerful images, such as roses or kittens.

Of course, for some people, even jigsaw puzzles become a political statement.  Suns Out, founded in 1994, of Costa Mesa, California, on its web site prominently declares that its puzzles are “eco-friendly” and are “Never in Walmart.”  Other jigsaw puzzle companies draw less attention to their use of lead-free ink and recycled cardboard, and they cast a wider retailing net.  For example, one of the oldest surviving makers of jigsaws, Ravensburger, began in 1883 in Upper Swabia and now sells its puzzles anywhere in the world.

Two other puzzle companies deserve special mention.  Master Pieces (motto: “Having fun one piece at a time!”), founded in 1995 and based in Oro Valley, Arizona, produces the standard range of images but also markets jigsaws promoting seventeen entities, from Major League Baseball to Warner Brothers, Nestlé to the United States Army.  Cobble Hill, founded in 2005 and located in Victoria, British Columbia, offers jigsaws of paintings by an array of excellent contemporary artists, including Canadians Robert Bateman and Douglas Laird.

Unwittingly, a Thomistic philosopher has described the experience of losing oneself in a jigsaw.  For Josef Pieper, in Leisure, the Basis of Culture (1952), leisure is not a break from work but “a receptive attitude of mind, a contemplative attitude, and it is not only the occasion but also the capacity for steeping oneself in the whole of creation.”

Along those lines, Margaret Drabble, in her meandering memoir, The Pattern in the Carpet (2009), described long hours doing jigsaws with her Aunt Phyllis.  “[W]e were never of the wilfully austere school that does not look at the picture on the box,” wrote Drabble.  “Looking at the picture was part of the pleasure.  Doing a jigsaw was not an intelligence test, or a personality assessment programme; it was a pursuit that lay somewhere between creation and imitation and discovery and reverie.  And it was not, for us, a form of competition.”

Some competitive and calculating people, brooding over timed chess moves or shrewdly watching the croupier deal, might not understand folks who prefer quiet evenings at home assembling jigsaw puzzles.  Nevertheless, what began as a didactic instrument still teaches patience and perseverance, seeing a task through to the end.  Granted, that steady determination easily becomes stubborn obsession.  Despite frustration and the growing suspicion that, even with a new puzzle, pieces are missing, someone finishes a jigsaw with a sense of accomplishment, a brief triumph before taking it apart and putting the pieces back in the box.

A Century on Spoon River

In 1916 Edgar Lee Masters, then forty-eight, published an expanded version of his collection of poems, Spoon River Anthology.  Still in print, it consists of 244 short free verse poems, each standing as an epitaph for someone buried in the hillside cemetery of the fictional town of Spoon River.  Nearly all the poems are in the first person and are addressed to the reader, who is given the role of visitor to the cemetery.

West of Peoria, Illinois, flows the real Spoon River, a tributary of the Illinois River.  The eponymous town Masters imagined along it contained a wide variety of inhabitants, some more admirable than others.  According to Masters, writing in The American Mercury of January, 1933, he arranged the poems to align with the Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven of Dante’s Divine Comedy:  “the fools, the drunkards, and the failures came first, the people of one-birth minds got second place, and the heroes and the enlightened spirits came last.”

The first person we meet is Hod Putt, convicted and hanged for murder.  His grave is near that of a man who had become wealthy trading with Indians.  Putt had “grown tired of toil and poverty” and so “robbed a traveler one night near Proctor’s Grove,/Killing him unwittingly while doing so.”  For that crime he was tried and executed.

Further on, we meet the Circuit Judge, no name given.  He heard Putt’s case, although the judge says he reached all his verdicts by “deciding cases on the points the lawyers scored,/Not on the right of the matter.”  For such serial injustice, he now acknowledges that “even Hod Putt, the murderer,/Hanged by my sentence,/Was innocent in soul compared with me.”

Likewise unnamed is the Village Atheist, found near the end of our tour through the cemetery.  He had been “talkative, contentious, versed in the arguments/Of the infidels.”  Then he fell ill and “read the Upanishads and the poetry of Jesus.”  They “lighted a torch of hope and intuition” in him which not even the shadow of death could put out.  His conclusion was that “immortality is an achievement” possessed only by “those who strive mightily.”

In contrast to the paradoxical atheist’s Pelagianism, six graves (or pages) away there lies Lydia Humphrey.  She was a spinster who went back and forth to church, “with my Bible under my arm/Till I was gray and old.”  Although she lived alone, she found “brothers and sisters in the congregation,/And children in the church.”  She kept her dignity even though she was painfully aware that to them she was an eccentric and ridiculous figure:  “I know they laughed and thought me queer.”

One of the last voices that we encounter from the grave is that of Jeremy Carlisle.  He tells us, “Passer-by, sin beyond any sin/Is the sin of blindness of souls to other souls.”  It was a sin long besetting him, and he confesses “a lofty scorn/And an acrid skepticism.”  Gradually he came to see that “joy beyond any joy is the joy/Of having the good in you seen, and seeing the good/At the miraculous moment!”  The faces and goodness of others grew clearer to him, until “We were ready then to walk together/And sing in chorus and chant the dawn/Of life that is wholly life.”

Someone who does not speak his own epitaph is Father Malloy, whose Christian name we are not told.  “You are over there, Father Malloy,/Where holy ground is, and the cross marks every grave.”  Separate from the hillside graves we have seen stands the small town’s Catholic cemetery.  Unlike the tee-totaling Calvinists active, if not dominant, in the town, the Irish priest was “so human, . . . /Taking a friendly glass sometimes with us.”  The core of this tribute needs to be quoted in full:

You were like a traveler who brings a little box of sand

From the wastes about the pyramids

And makes them real and Egypt real.

You were part of and related to a great past,

And yet you were so close to many of us.

Quietly exotic, his appeal to some of the Protestants of Spoon River came from his steady realism:  “You faced life as it is,/And as it changes.”

In the 14 December, 1927, issue of The Commonweal (the definite article has since been dropped) Masters wrote about “Father Malloy.”  Masters noted that in the midst of the daily conflict between “the prudent and the shiftless,” Father Malloy “kept his way in a high tranquility at the parish house at the edge of town” beside his church, which “had nothing to do with all this village turmoil.”  Father Malloy’s forays into the town square were “to get his mail, or to attend to the errands of the day, or to visit with the men with whom Peter would have fished.”  Then he left them to the arguments that seemed so important to them, went home, and “calmly celebrated the Mass.”

Primarily among the intelligentsia along the eastern seaboard, Spoon River Anthology at once won high praise.  Editors sought permission to reprint poems from it, and the book became a staple in high school English classes.  Students learnt that Masters based his anthology on an ancient text, The Greek Anthology, and probably more than one bespectacled boy walked across his own Spoon River sort of town to check out the older anthology from the public library.

Masters went on to write other poems, as well as essays and novels, but he knew he would be remembered only for his anthology, so he called his autobiography Across Spoon River (1936).  Whenever Masters wrote about the real-life models for Spoon River’s cast of characters, he described several small Midwestern towns from his boyhood.  He sketched their settlers as contrasting kinds of Protestant, conservatives from New England (such as his mother’s family) and liberals from Virginia (his father’s family).

He admitted that the former lot and “Tories everywhere” disliked Spoon River Anthology, and yet no less a champion of evangelical Protestantism than William Jennings Bryan, recalled Masters, “bestowed a wry smile of congratulation upon me, having read the book at the home of a Presbyterian preacher who was keeping it hidden from his children.”  Masters left unsaid what Bryan thought of the description of the town’s Catholic priest, but Catholic priests and seminarians especially would do well to meditate upon Masters’ poetic portrait of Father Malloy.